Mountain Badakhshan is an amazing mountainous country. All over the world, there are only two such places: the Tibetan and Bolivian highlands. The Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region borders on the north with Kyrgyzstan, in the east - with China, in the south and west - with Afghanistan. Territorially the Gorno-Badakhshan zone coincides with the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region and occupies the eastern part of Tajikistan (45% of the territory of the republic). * The territory of the region includes a variety of landscapes: alpine meadows, high-mountainous deserts, deep and narrow gorges of rivers, cliffed by rocky ridges, picturesque valleys lying at an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters, beautiful high-mountain lakes and swift rivers, unusual architecture of mountain settlements. There are also the highest ridges, the most powerful glaciers, the highest situated settlements of the country (up to 4000 m). The glaciers of this zone give rise to almost all the rivers of Central Asia. Most of the region is occupied by the highlands of the Pamirs, the highest point of which is the peak of Communism (now the peak of Ismail Samani), thanks to which the highlands are often called the "Roof of the World". The administrative, industrial and cultural center of the region is the city of Khorog, located in a deep canyon at an altitude of 2,200 meters above sea level, on the bank of the Gunt River, on the site of its confluence in Pyanj. * History of Gorno-Badakhshan. The first inhabitants of the Pamirs, or more precisely of Gorno-Badakhshan, became primitive people of the Stone Age. At the end of the Pamir bronze epoch, the Proto-Indian tribes began to settle first, and then the ancient Iranians. In this case, the languages and culture of the aliens began to be assimilated with local traditions and dialects. Thus, a group of East Iranian languages was formed. In 7 - 2 centuries BC. Pamirs inhabited tribes, which in historical sources are known as Saki. The name of this tribe is also associated with the toponym Shugnan, which can literally be translated as "The Land of the Sakas". The territory of the Pamirs was part of the mighty Persian Empire of the Achaemenids (6th-4th centuries BC). In the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. the population of the Pamirs was dependent on the Greco-Bactrian kingdom formed after Alexander's victory in the war against the Achaemenids; in the 1st - 3rd centuries AD. - from the Kushan kingdom; in 4 - 6 centuries - from Ephtalites. After the defeat of the Ephtalites by the Türkic Kaganate, the Pamir became nominally subordinate to the Turkic rulers. In the second half of the 7th century the Pamirs became dependent on the Chinese Tang Empire. In subsequent centuries, the Pamir consistently obeyed the Muslim Arabs, was part of the Tahirides (9th century), the Samanids (11th-12th centuries), Ghaznavids, Gurids, was under the rule of the Mongol conquerors (13th century), Timurid rulers (14-15th centuries) , became part of the state of the Great Moguls (the beginning of the 16th century), the state of Sheibanids (late 16th century) and Ashtarkhanids (1599). In 1885, Russian troops occupied the Eastern Pamirs and founded the Murgab post. And then, according to the Russo-English agreement, the Pamir was divided: the territory on the left bank of the Pyanj River was withdrawn to Afghanistan, and the right bank Badakhshan was transferred to Bukhara, a vassal from Russia. Soviet power in the Pamirs was established in late June 1920. And in 1925 the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region was formed and annexed to the Tajik SSR after the formation of the republic in 1929. In the 1950s, local residents of Gorno-Badakhshan, some of whom were ethnic Pamiri, were forcibly relocated to southeastern Tajikistan. In 1992, a civil war broke out in Tajikistan. And then the local government of the region announced the autonomy of the region. Administratively Gorno-Badakhshan region consists of eight districts and the capital of the region - the city of Khorog: * Vanj district with the center in the village of Vanj. * Shugnansky district with the center in the city of Khorog. * Ishkashim district with the center in the village of Ishkashim. * Murgab district with the center in the village of Murgab. * Darvaz district. * Rushansky with a center in the village of Rushan. * Darvaz district. * Roshtka District. City of Horog. * Population. Mountain Badakhshan from ancient times inhabited the settled tribes of farmers, still calling themselves "Pamirians". At one time, the branches of the Great Silk Road passed along the Pyanj, many conquerors visited here, so the Persian, Arabic and Chinese cultures influenced the formation of the local people. Ethnic and culturally, the people of Badakhshan are the descendants of the ancient Iranian tribes; it is widely believed that the Aryan peoples originated from them, settled later in Europe, India, and Iran. Until now, the Pamir people communicate in the ancient East Iranian languages - Wahan, Shugnan, Ishkashim. To this day, these unique people keep their centuries-old traditions, observe the customs that are interesting for every traveler who have reached these reserved places. * Tourism. In Gorno-Badakhshan, tourists have the opportunity to enjoy the picturesque mountain landscapes of the numerous ridges (Wanch, Rushan, Shohdarya, Zulumart, Zaalaysky), as well as the Afghan Hindu Kush and Chinese Kun-Lun with the peaks of Pathor peak (6093 m), Mayakovsky peak (6095 m) the peak of Karl Marx (6723 m), the peak of Soviet officers (6233 m), Lenin Peak (7134 m), Muztagh Ata peak (7556 m) and many other picturesque peaks, various high-mountain lakes (Karakul, Bulunkul, Zoroshkul, Turumtykul, Sarez, Yashilkul, Zorkul, Rongkul and hundreds of others more small lakes), intermountain valleys (Alichurskaya, Vakhanskaya, Shokhdarya, Vonchskaya) with many mountain villages where you can observe the real life of the Pamir people and their traditions, the remains of ancient fortresses (Kaakhka, Yamchun, Ratm) and numerous tombs and sanctuaries. The region is most interested in foreign tourists, which is confirmed by the annual influx of travelers from Europe, Asia and America, as well as CIS countries. Every year in Tajikistan, International Alpinist expeditions are held, during which climbers from different countries of the world make ascents to the highest mountain peaks of the Pamirs. The unique relief of this Tajik region favors the development of tourist hikes and trekking of various complexity categories, such special kinds of sports as climbing, mountaineering, mountain skiing, mountaineering in combination with hunting and photo hunting, rafting, paragliding, speleotourism and other kinds of extreme tourism. Hunters, caves and, mainly, mineral springs of thermal and cold, carbonic and silicic waters attract tourists here. So, Mountainous Badakhshan is waiting for you at his home and sincerely hopes that the journey to this Tajik region will remain alive for a long time in your memory.